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Sustainability vs. ESG: debunking the real myth

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By Gokul Shekar

· 3 min read


In an era defined by mounting environmental challenges and heightened social consciousness, the terminologies "Sustainability" and "ESG" have taken center stage in the realm of responsible business practices and investment decisions. Yet, a prevailing misperception blurs the lines between these two concepts, obscuring their unique characteristics and implications. This article undertakes an exploration into the distinct realms of sustainability and ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance), unraveling the complexities that underlie their meanings and debunking the myth that they are interchangeable.

Defining sustainability and ESG

Sustainability is a multidimensional concept that extends beyond the perimeters of individual business practices. It embodies a holistic approach, harmonizing economic prosperity, social equity, and ecological integrity, all while accounting for the long-term interests of current and future generations. Sustainability signifies an all-encompassing commitment to forging a world where economic growth does not come at the expense of environmental degradation or social injustice.

ESG, on the other hand, represents a framework for assessing a company's performance within three specific domains. The "E" evaluates the environmental impact, encompassing factors such as carbon emissions, resource consumption, and waste management. The "S" scrutinizes social considerations, delving into areas like employee welfare, community engagement, and customer relations. The "G" evaluates governance standards, including transparency, accountability, and the composition of corporate leadership.

The myth: ESG encompasses sustainability

A common misconception is that a company aligning with ESG principles automatically signifies a commitment to sustainability. This oversimplification belies the nuanced essence of sustainability and fails to capture the intricate interplay of economic, social, and environmental factors that define it.

Debunking the myth

  1. Comprehensiveness of sustainability: Sustainability transcends the boundaries of ESG by integrating a comprehensive perspective. While ESG evaluates specific criteria within the three pillars, sustainability adopts a systemic view, considering how these elements interact and influence each other. It necessitates an approach that goes beyond compartmentalized assessments to foster true harmony between seemingly disparate factors.
  2. Time horizon and inter-generational equity: ESG evaluations often focus on shorter-term objectives, driven by immediate financial gains and the preferences of contemporary stakeholders. In contrast, sustainability is grounded in inter-generational equity, accounting for the needs and rights of future generations. It compels businesses to adopt a far-sighted mindset, making decisions today that will have positive repercussions for decades and centuries to come.
  3. Innovation and transformation: Sustainability mandates radical innovation and transformative action. While ESG metrics establish benchmarks for responsible practices, sustainability challenges companies to disrupt conventional norms. It encourages organizations to explore innovative technologies, circular economy models, and regenerative practices that address the root causes of sustainability challenges, rather than merely mitigating symptoms.
  4. Cultural shift and ethical responsibility: Achieving sustainability necessitates a fundamental shift in organizational culture—a shift driven by ethical responsibility and a dedication to positive global impact. Sustainability requires businesses to become stewards of change, embedding social and environmental considerations into their DNA. ESG, although a vital component, might not intrinsically trigger the depth of cultural transformation that sustainability demands.


The journey towards a sustainable future is marked by intricate layers that extend beyond the realms of ESG metrics. Sustainability embodies a holistic ethos that encompasses interwoven economic, social, and environmental fabrics. Recognizing the divergence between ESG and sustainability is pivotal in navigating the complexities of responsible business practices and investment decisions. By acknowledging their unique roles, stakeholders can embark on a more informed trajectory—one that is not merely dictated by quantitative indicators, but by the profound legacy of enduring positive change for the planet and humanity.

illuminem Voices is a democratic space presenting the thoughts and opinions of leading Sustainability & Energy writers, their opinions do not necessarily represent those of illuminem.

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About the author

Gokul Shekar has over 18 years of experience in B2B education and global team leadership across regions such as the Middle East, Asia, Africa, Europe, and India. He is currently Head of ESG & Climate Change at The Carbon Collective Company, where he drives impactful decarbonization journeys.

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